http://www.unilang2.org/wiki2/wiki.phtml?title=Wasaqalu_verbs

WASA: a language of Ghana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Population

175,000 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). 

Region

Southwestern.

Alternate names  

WASAW, WASSA

Dialects

AMENFI, FIANSE.

Classification

Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan.

Comments

Some intelligibility with Abron. Twi (Akan) is used as second language. Low Asante and Fante comprehension in rural areas. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Abron. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. Traditional religion.

 

Wasaqalu verbs

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

5.1 Regular verbs  wanc  in wasaqalu

 

Infinitive

Participle

Imperative

 

nal-âm

-a-ndal(a)-

nal-u, nal-o

 

to see

seeing, that sees

see (sing., plur.)

 

Imperfect

Future

Unreal

Intransitive

u-ndal-u, I see, I'm seing

u-ndal--u, I'll see

u-ndâla, I see

 

-ndal-u, you see

-ndal-âń-u, you'll see

-ndâla, you see

 

a-ndal-a, he sees

a-ndal--a, he'll see

a-ndâla, he see

 

ne-ndal-â, she sees

ne-ndal-âń-â, she'll see

ne-ndâla, she see

 

no-ndal-a, it sees

no-ndal--a, it'll see

no-ndâla, it see

 

so-ndal-a, it sees

so-ndal--a, it'll see

so-ndâla, it see

 

nu-ndal-o, we see

nu-ndal--o, we'll see

nu-ndâla, we see

 

na-ndal-o, you see

na-ndal--o, you'll see

nu-ndâla, you see

 

la-ndal-o, they see

la-ndal--o, they'll see

la-ndâla, they see

 

mi-ndal-o, they see

mi-ndal--o, they'll see

mi-ndâla, they see

 

ye-ndal-o, they see

ye-ndal--o, they'll see

ye-ndâla, they see

 

mo-ndal-a, they see

mo-ndal--a, they'll see

mo-ndâla, they see

Transitive

-ndal-un-u

-ndal--un-u

-ndâl-un-a

 

I see you

I'll see you

I see you

 

u-ndal-an-u

u-ndal-âń-an-u

u-ndâl-an-a

 

you see me

you'll see me

you see me

 

Perfect

Consecutive

Negative

Intransitive

u-ndanal-u

u-ntal-a

u-wantal-u

 

I've seen

I see and…

I don't see

 

-ndanal-u

-ntal-a

-wantal-u

 

you've seen

you see and…

you don't see

Transitive

-ndanal-un-u

-ntal-un-a

-wantal-un-u

 

I've seen you

I see you and…

I don't see you

 

u-ndanal-an-u

u-ntal-an-a

u-wantal-an-u

 

you've seen me

you see me and…

you don't see me

Deverbal names

Agent

Action

Instrument

 

na-ndalu,
ma-ndaluma

nal-ańu

nal-asu

 

the one who sees, seer

the action of seeing, seeing

what's seeing, used to see



5.1.1. Formation of the infinitive and imperative

mp

becomes

f

nt

becomes

s

nc

becomes

x

-

-

-

mb

"

m

nd

"

n

nj

"

ń

ng

becomes

q



5.1.2. Formation of the future

f

becomes

v

s

becomes

z

x

becomes

y

h

becomes

q

v

"

m

z

"

z

y

"

y

w

"

w

m

"

mb

n

"

nd

ń

"

nj

q

"

ng

mp

"

mb

nt

"

nd

nc

"

nj

-

-

-

mb

"

mb

nd

"

nd

nj

"

nj

ng

"

ng

-

-

-

l

"

l

r

"

r

-

-

-



5.1.3. Formation of the unreal

a

becomes

â

i

becomes

e

u

becomes

o

â

"

ara

e

"

â

o

"

â



5.1.4. Formation of the perfect

Perfect tense is formed reduplicating the first syllable of the word. A â become an a and the following consonantal changes are applied:

f

becomes

f-m~

s

becomes

s-n~

x

becomes

x-y~

h

becomes

h-w~

v

"

v-m~

z

"

z-n~

y

"

y-ń~

w

"

w-v~

m

"

m-mb~

n

"

n-nd~

ń

"

ń-x~

q

"

q-n~

mp

"

mp-m~

nt

"

nt-n~

nc

"

nc-n~

-

-

-

mb

"

mb-m~

nd

"

nd-n~

nj

"

nj-n~

ng

"

ng-n~

-

-

-

l

"

l-n~

r

"

l-r~

-

-

-



5.1.5. Formation of the consecutive

f

becomes

nâf

s

becomes

nâs

x

becomes

nâx

h

becomes

nâh

v

"

nâf

z

"

nâs

y

"

nây

w

"

nâh

m

"

nâm

n

"

nân

ń

"

nâń

q

"

nâq

mp

"

nâmp

nt

"

nânt

nc

"

nânc

-

-

-

mb

"

nâmp

nd

"

nânt

nj

"

nânc

ng

"

nâq

-

-

-

l

"

nâl

r

"

nâr

-

-

-



5.1.6. Formation of the negative

f

becomes

waf

s

becomes

was

x

becomes

wax

h

becomes

wah

v

"

waf

z

"

was

y

"

way

w

"

wah

m

"

wam

n

"

wan

ń

"

wań

q

"

waq

mp

"

wamp

nt

"

want

nc

"

wanc

-

-

-

mb

"

wamp

nd

"

want

nj

"

wanc

ng

"

waq

-

-

-

l

"

wal

r

"

war

-

-

-

 


1. Script and phonetics
2. Nouns
3. Pronouns and adverbs
4. Numerals
6. Syntax


>> Contents
>> Conlangs
>> Wiki

isali o nas:

-"Polityka" - 29.06.02
-"Wprost"
-lubelska "Gazeta Wyborcza"- m.in. 04.07.02

W Internecie można o nas przeczytać m.in. na stronach:
- www.studia.korba.pl
- www.dziecko-info.com

Zapraszamy do jutrzejszej "Polityki" - tam również znajdą Państwo informacje o PUW.

Niebawem również na naszej stronie będzie można przeczytać kto napisał o nas, kiedy i co. Zapraszamy!

Margaretta Wancisiewicz i Dorota Kwiatkowska (PUW)

http://www.puw.pl/forum_op.html?id=1&page=56&opi_id=59#opi59

Wasaqalu Verbs syntax

Presented by the UniLang Language Community


Note: There's no particular distinction between tenses and moods in Wasa; for example, there's no imperative perfect or unreal future. Hence, though it's not grammatically correct, we'll call each category a tense.

6.4.1. Imperfect

Imperfect is the tense of unaccomplished, unachieved actions or states. It is used for actions taking place at one point, be it in the present time or in the past:

nantun manja nequva
man his-spouse her-loves-he
The man loves his wife

xu harânjâ soyâqa
sun in-sky it-shines
The sun shines in the sky

nungu anaya
king he-dies
The king is dying

nempenju sonteyunu
this-book it-read-I
I'm reading this book

6.4.2. Perfect

Perfect is the tense of accomplished, achieved actions or states. It is used for actions that have been done at one point, be it in the present time or in the past:

nantun manja nequnuva
man his-spouse her-loved-he
The man has loved his wife

xu harânja soyańaqa
sun in-sky it-shined
The sun has shined in the sky

nungu anandaya
king he-died
The king is dead

nempunju sonteneyunu
this-book it-read-I
I've read this book

6.4.3. Future

Future is the tense of actions or states that do not exist yet but will be for sure or are going to:

nantun manja nequmańa
man his-spouse her-will love-he
The man will love his wife

xu harânja soyangańa
sun in-sky it-will shine
The sun will shine in the sky

nungu anayańa
king he-will die
The king is going to die

nempunju sonteyuńu
this-book it-will read-I
I'm going to read this book

vândalunu muya umbuńu
you-
see-I when I-shall come
I'll see you when I come

fâra usumbuńu nal umbuńu
if I-shall can then I-shall come
I'll come if I can

6.4.4. Unreal

Unreal is the tense of uncertain actions or states; it is used to express doubt or wishes:

nerunda soqońa
weather it-be good
The weather might be fine

nungu anâya
the kind he-die
The king might die (as far as I know)

nempunju sontâyuna
this-book it-read-I
I'll (maybe) read this book

untunrangu vâmbona
I-wish you-come
I wish you come

unjanu ambona
I-thought he-come
I thought he would come

fâra usomba nal umbona
if I-could then I-come
If I could, I'd come

vâmbona!
come
May you come!

unorza!
I-be-rich
May I be rich! If only I'd be rich!

nandona!
be-happy
May you be happy!

6.4.5. Consecutive

Consecutive is the tense of the actions or states taking place immediatly before the action or state of the next verb; it is used in statements of consecutive actions.

yala anâmpa xu soyâqa
rain it-has-come sun it-shines
After it rained, the sun is (now) shining

nayon meyu nenântala nequnuvusa
man woman her-has-seen her-loved-he
When he had seen the woman, the man loved her

nungu anânaya faleq sundelańa
king he-has-died people it-will-be-sad
When the king will die, the people will be sad

nempunju sonânteyuna sanco sonteyuńu
this-book it-have-read-I another it-will-read-I
When I'll have finish this book, I'll read another

anântifexa wavań anâmpa sonâlambusa vavâhuya namba
he-has-stood-up to-door he-has-gone it-has-opened-he out-of-house he-goes
He stands up, goes to the door, opens it and goes out of the house / He stood up, went to the door…

6.4.6. Imperative

Imperative is the tense of commands and advices:

nalu!
look, see
Look!

wańa solambu!
door it-open
Open the door!

anumalu!
it-to-me-give
Give it to me!

muya vâmpunjańu nâ munu!
when you-will-finish then come
Come, when you've finished!
 
Negative imperative
is formed with the conjunction mu placed before the verb. It is used for bannings, warnings or negative advices:

mu nalu!
don't look
Don't look!

wańa mu solambu!
door don't it-open
Do not open the door!

mu somuru!
don't it loose
Don't loose it!

muya vâwampunju mu munu!
when you-don't-finish don't come
Don't come untill you've finished!

6.4.7. Infinitive

Infinitive indicates the goal/aim/purpose of doing (or being) something:

nempunju seyâm sondanaxunu
this-book to-read it-bought-I
I bought this book to read it

saxu sompayana nungu wuqâm
poison it-makes-he king to-kill
He makes poison to kill the king

mumuru soqezana ravumbu munâm
which-way it-asks-he to-city to-go
He asks (what's) the way to go to the city

newenu nunja sarumbâm
much he-eat to-be-strong
He eats a lot to be strong

namumba anandu lantâm
he-came his-father to-help
He has come to help his father

nenondoncana nâyântu untâm
her-married-he her-money to-get
He married her for/to get her money

6.4.8. Participles

Participles are actually adjectives.
They're incorporated in the name they qualify, after the class marker:

xembâm

naxembayo

to be beautiful

a beautiful man

 

quvâm

maquvanja

to love

a loving wife

 

zurâm

fazurali

to be kind

a kind dog

 

rurâm

varuruya

to be red

a red house

 

One word can have more than one qualifier, main coming first. To avoid too much long words, conjugated form may be used:

ferâm
to be green
varur-amperuya
a house red and green
varuruya s'ampera
(a red house and it's green)

langâm

to be tall
a beautiful tall man

naxemb-alangayo
naxembayo s'alanga

(a tall man and he's beautiful)

sâranjâm, layalâm

to be wild, to be wide
nasâranj-alayalalna
a wild wide country
nasâranjalna s'alayala
(a wild country and it's wide)

yampunâm

to be empty, uninhabited
nayampun-asâranj-alayalalna
an empty wild wide country
nasâranj-alayalalna s'ayampuna
(a w.w. country and it's empty)

Note that to express the english (passive) past participle, you must use a conjugated form:

fâzâm
to burn, be on fire
vafâzuya
a burning house
afamâza vuya
a burnt house (that has burnt)

yanjâm

to grow (up)
nayanja
a growing up son
ayańanja na
a grown-up son

sâvâm

to be written
nasâvenju
a book being written
antanâva nenju
a written book


1. Script and phonetics
2. Nouns
3. Pronouns and adverbs
4. Numerals
5. Verbs
6. Syntax


>> Contents
>> Conlangs
>> Wiki

From: Wanc Guttemberg Email: <wanc@ig.com.br>
Posted on:
Thursday, April 12, 2001, 03:16 AM

Wow!!! I am brazilian. How you does it?? All pictures are wonderful!! What you use to render this views?